21. Handling run-time errors
Tao says: Errors happen.Old programming languages like C handle error conditions returning NULL pointer from a function, or returning zero, or returning non-zero and applying system specific library functions, like longjump, setlongjump and alike. Newer programming languages, like C++, Java invented exception handling.
BASIC is an old language. Indeed it is a very old language. Older than C. But it has exception handling.
When an error happens during program execution the program execution stops (exit code is the code of the error or zero on errorless termination) and usually an error message is printed on the screen. This happens for example when a file can not be opened for reading, there is not enough memory to perform some operation, an external module can not be loaded for some reason, a specified file number is out of range and many other events can cause an error.
A programmer can have two different approaches to avoid program termination caused by program error. One approach is to check every needed condition before trying to perform some action. This is impractical in some cases. The other approach is to tell the BASIC interpreter what to do instead of terminating the program when some error occurs. Programmers usually follow a mixed style. Some conditions are easier to check, while other errors are difficult to avoid.
For example you can not check all the conditions before trying to load a module. To do that you have to check the BASIC setup, configuration, the existence of the file, the existence of the functions implemented in the file. It is not possible from basic.